This transformation must be carried out over time, but also over time. No country is in a position to decisively change the global energy base or land use patterns. To that end, policy measures must now be defined; Technologies must be developed, developed, marketed and used on a large scale; and the practices and behaviours of economic operators must move more and more quickly towards low-carbon and sustainable enterprises and investments. Indeed, the scenarios and trajectories evaluated by the scientific community examine the calendar until the end of this century and take different assumptions in how they are achieved. All parties to the Paris Agreement are invited to communicate by 2020 their long-term strategies for the development of greenhouse gas emissions with a view to developing greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century. These three objectives provide state and non-governmental actors with a unique and clear long-term travel direction, as there is a link between economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change. According to the latest available scientific data, achieving the long-term temperature target would require global greenhouse gas emissions to peak by 2020 and then reduced to zero by the end of the century. To limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, this reduction to zero must be achieved by 2050. The temperature target reflects above all a vision of society that we want for the future. One of the objectives is to design our economic system so that the improvement of our quality of life is not hindered by the negative effects on our climate.
In the light of science, this vision implies a major transformation. This forces us to rethink how we produce, use and use energy; how we produce and build; and how we manage our land and ecosystems. If net global greenhouse gas emissions are to reach zero by the end of this century, we must ensure that our energy and production systems are neutral in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, so that there is at least a balance between human-caused greenhouse gas emissions and the elimination of emissions from our country and healthy natural ecosystems. Oil sands facilities like this one in Canada contribute more to greenhouse gas emissions than crude oil production. According to a new report, if governments want to avoid a climate catastrophe, renewable and carbon-free energy sources must replace oil by the middle of the century. “We have the technology and the knowledge to make these emission reductions, but what is missing are policies and regulations strong enough to achieve this,” Watson said in an interview. “Right now, the world is on a path between 3 and 4 degrees C (5.5 and 7F) by the end of the century.” Abandoning the Paris Agreement is cruel for future generations,” said Andrew Steer, president and CEO of the World Resources Institute, about the Trump administration`s decision to formally withdraw the United States from the agreement. The U.S. will lose much stronger jobs and economy that will bring a low-carbon future, Steer said in a statement. Some countries have already responded to an invitation from the Conference of the Parties (COP) to communicate mid-century strategies, with 2050 being considered a reference year. Most of these countries have translated their long-term vision into a target as a percentage reduction, which, in Germany`s case, is to fall to 95% below the 1990 level by 2050.